The role of inflammation in the development of restenosis after percutaneous coronary interventions has been investigated in several studies. There is an interaction of inflammatory activation and vascular wall response to injury leading to intimal hyperplasia. Percutaneous interventions trigger inflammatory reactions leading to the development of intimal hyperplasia. This reaction is even more prominent in atheromatic plaques in which inflammatory cells have already been activated. In the clinical setting there are several methods for the recognition of the inflammatory activation. In this article we review the data for the role of inflammatory process in restenosis and the significance of identifying the inflamed lesions prior to the intervention. Moreover, the therapeutic implications for the inhibition of inflammatory activation are mentioned.