To understand better which voltage-dependent calcium channels (VGCCs) are involved in nociceptive neurotransmission, we investigated the pharmacological properties and distribution of VGCCs in the mouse spinal cord. A behavioral assay revealed that intrathecal injections of omega-agatoxin TK, omega-agatoxin IVA, omega-conotoxin GVIA, and SNX-482, which block P/Q-, P/Q-, N-, and R-type calcium channels, respectively, produced analgesic effects, while an L-type channel blocker had no such effect. An electrophysiological study demonstrated the presence of various types of VGCCs within dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Immunohistochemistry revealed distinct localization of P/Q-, N-, L-, and R-type calcium channel subunits to the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. The results of this study revealed the localization and functions of several calcium channels that are involved in nociceptive neurotransmission within the dorsal horn of the mouse spinal cord.