Adenoviruses have transitioned from tools for gene replacement therapy to bona fide vaccine delivery vehicles. They are attractive vaccine vectors as they induce both innate and adaptive immune responses in mammalian hosts. Currently, adenovirus vectors are being tested as subunit vaccine systems for numerous infectious agents ranging from malaria to HIV-1. Additionally, they are being explored as vaccines against a multitude of tumor-associated antigens. In this review we describe the molecular biology of adenoviruses as well as ways the adenovirus vectors can be manipulated to enhance their efficacy as vaccine carriers. We describe methods of evaluating immune responses to transgene products expressed by adenoviral vectors and discuss data on adenoviral vaccines to a selected number of pathogens. Last, we comment on the limitations of using human adenoviral vectors and provide alternatives to circumvent these problems. This field is growing at an exciting and rapid pace, thus we have limited our scope to the use of adenoviral vectors as vaccines against viral pathogens.