Regulation of ryanodine receptors by FK506 binding proteins

Trends Cardiovasc Med. 2004 Aug;14(6):227-34. doi: 10.1016/j.tcm.2004.06.003.


Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are the major sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium-release channels required for excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal and cardiac muscle. Mutations in RyRs have been linked to several human diseases. Mutations in the cardiac isoform of RyR2 are associated with catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular arrhythmias (CPVT), and arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia type 2 (ARVD2), whereas mutations in the skeletal muscle isoform (RyR1) are linked to malignant hyperthermia (MH) and central core disease (CCD). RyRs are modulated by several other proteins, including the FK506 binding proteins (FKBPs), FKBP12 and FKBP12.6. These immunophilins appear to stabilize a closed state of the channel and are important for cooperative interactions among the subunits of RyRs. This review discusses the regulation of RyRs by FKBPs and the possibility that defective modulation of RyR2 by FKBP12.6 could play a role in heart failure, CPVT, and ARVD2. Also discussed are the consequences of FKBP12 depletion to skeletal muscle and the possibility of FKBP12 involvement in certain forms of MH or CCD.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia
  • Heart Failure
  • Humans
  • Protein Binding
  • Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel / metabolism*
  • Tachycardia, Ventricular
  • Tacrolimus Binding Protein 1A / metabolism*


  • Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel
  • Tacrolimus Binding Protein 1A