Nuclear matrix interactions at the human protamine domain: a working model of potentiation

J Biol Chem. 2004 Dec 10;279(50):51862-8. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M409415200. Epub 2004 Sep 27.


The compact eukaryotic genome must be selectively opened to grant trans-factor access to cis-regulatory elements to overcome the primary barrier to gene transcription. The mechanism that governs the selective opening of chromatin domains (i.e. potentiation) remains poorly understood. In the absence of a well defined locus control region, the nuclear matrix is considered the primary candidate regulating the opening of the multigenic PRM1 --> PRM2 --> TNP2 human protamine domain. To directly examine its role, four lines of transgenic mice with different configurations of flanking nuclear matrix attachment regions (MARs) encompassing the protamine domain were created. We show that upon removal of the MARs, the locus becomes subject to position effects. The 3' MAR alone may be sufficient to protect against silencing. In concert, the MARs bounding this domain likely synergize to regulate the expression of the various members of this gene cluster. Interestingly, the MARs may convey a selective reproductive advantage, such that constructs bearing both 5' and 3' MARs are passed to their offspring with greater frequency. Thus, the MARs bounding the PRM1 --> PRM2 --> TNP2 protamine domain have many and varied functions.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Base Sequence
  • Binding Sites / genetics
  • Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone
  • DNA / genetics
  • Female
  • Gene Expression
  • Gene Silencing
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Mice, Transgenic
  • Models, Biological
  • Nuclear Matrix / metabolism*
  • Nuclear Proteins / chemistry
  • Nuclear Proteins / genetics
  • Nuclear Proteins / metabolism
  • Protamines / chemistry*
  • Protamines / genetics
  • Protamines / metabolism*
  • Protein Structure, Tertiary


  • Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • PRM1 protein, human
  • Prm1 protein, mouse
  • Protamines
  • protamine 2
  • spermatid transition proteins
  • DNA