Maturation and trafficking markers on rotavirus-specific B cells during acute infection and convalescence in children

J Virol. 2004 Oct;78(20):10967-76. doi: 10.1128/JVI.78.20.10967-10976.2004.


We have previously studied B cells, from people and mice, that express rotavirus-specific surface immunoglobulin (RV-sIg) by flow cytometry with recombinant virus-like particles that contain green fluorescent protein. In the present study we characterized circulating B cells with RV-sIg in children with acute and convalescent infection. During acute infection, circulating RV-sIgD(-) B cells are predominantly large, CD38(high), CD27(high), CD138(+/-), CCR6(-), alpha4beta7(+), CCR9(+), CCR10(+), cutaneous lymphocyte antigen-negative (CLA(-)), L-selectin(int/-), and sIgM(+), sIgG(-), sIgA(+/-) lymphocytes. This phenotype likely corresponds to gut-targeted plasma cells and plasmablasts. During convalescence the phenotype switches to small and large lymphocytes, CD38(int/-), CD27(int/-), CCR6(+), alpha4beta7(+/-), CCR9(+/-) and CCR10(-), most likely representing RV-specific memory B cells with both gut and systemic trafficking profiles. Of note, during acute RV infection both total and RV-specific murine IgM and IgA antibody-secreting cells migrate efficiently to CCL28 (the CCR10 ligand) and to a lesser extent to CCL25 (the CCR9 ligand). Our results show that CCR10 and CCR9 can be expressed on IgM as well as IgA antibody-secreting cells in response to acute intestinal infection, likely helping target these cells to the gut. However, these intestinal infection-induced plasmablasts lack the CLA homing receptor for skin, consistent with mechanisms of differential CCR10 participation in skin T versus intestinal plasma cell homing. Interestingly, RV memory cells generally lack CCR9 and CCR10 and instead express CCR6, which may enable recruitment to diverse epithelial sites of inflammation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Acute Disease
  • Animals
  • Antigens, CD / metabolism
  • B-Lymphocytes / cytology*
  • B-Lymphocytes / immunology*
  • Chemotaxis, Leukocyte / immunology*
  • Child, Preschool
  • Convalescence
  • Humans
  • Immunologic Memory
  • Immunophenotyping*
  • Infant
  • Intestines / immunology
  • Lymph Nodes / immunology
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell / metabolism
  • Rotavirus / immunology*
  • Rotavirus Infections / immunology*
  • Rotavirus Infections / virology
  • Skin / immunology


  • Antigens, CD
  • Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell