Objective: To examine the feasibility of using phylloquinone intake as a marker for coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke risk in women.
Design and setting: Nurses' Health Study, a prospective cohort study during 1984-2000. Dietary data were collected in 1984, 1986, 1990, and 1994 using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire.
Subjects: A total of 72 874 female nurses, aged 38-65 y, without previously diagnosed angina, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, or cancer at baseline.
Main outcome measures: Incidence of nonfatal MI, CHD deaths, total CHD events, ischemic, and total strokes.
Results: There were 1679 CHD events (1201 nonfatal) and 1009 strokes (567 ischemic). After adjustment for age and lifestyle factors associated with cardiovascular disease risk, the multivariate relative risks (RR) (95% CI) of total CHD from the lowest to the highest quintile category of phylloquinone intake were 1 (reference), 0.80 (0.69-0.94), 0.86 (0.74-1.00), 0.77 (0.66-0.99), and 0.79 (0.68-0.92), P for trend=0.01. Further adjustment for dietary intakes of saturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, trans fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids, cereal fiber, and folate attenuated the association (RR comparing extreme quintiles 0.84 [0.71-1.00], P for trend=0.12). Incidence rates of total or ischemic strokes were not associated with phylloquinone intake.
Conclusion: The data suggest that high phylloquinone intake may be a marker for low CHD risk. Dietary and lifestyle patterns associated with phylloquinone intakes, rather than intake of the nutrient itself, might account for all or part of the weak association. .