Phylloquinone intake as a marker for coronary heart disease risk but not stroke in women

Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005 Feb;59(2):196-204. doi: 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602058.


Objective: To examine the feasibility of using phylloquinone intake as a marker for coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke risk in women.

Design and setting: Nurses' Health Study, a prospective cohort study during 1984-2000. Dietary data were collected in 1984, 1986, 1990, and 1994 using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire.

Subjects: A total of 72 874 female nurses, aged 38-65 y, without previously diagnosed angina, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, or cancer at baseline.

Main outcome measures: Incidence of nonfatal MI, CHD deaths, total CHD events, ischemic, and total strokes.

Results: There were 1679 CHD events (1201 nonfatal) and 1009 strokes (567 ischemic). After adjustment for age and lifestyle factors associated with cardiovascular disease risk, the multivariate relative risks (RR) (95% CI) of total CHD from the lowest to the highest quintile category of phylloquinone intake were 1 (reference), 0.80 (0.69-0.94), 0.86 (0.74-1.00), 0.77 (0.66-0.99), and 0.79 (0.68-0.92), P for trend=0.01. Further adjustment for dietary intakes of saturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, trans fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids, cereal fiber, and folate attenuated the association (RR comparing extreme quintiles 0.84 [0.71-1.00], P for trend=0.12). Incidence rates of total or ischemic strokes were not associated with phylloquinone intake.

Conclusion: The data suggest that high phylloquinone intake may be a marker for low CHD risk. Dietary and lifestyle patterns associated with phylloquinone intakes, rather than intake of the nutrient itself, might account for all or part of the weak association. .

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Biomarkers
  • Cohort Studies
  • Coronary Disease / epidemiology*
  • Coronary Disease / mortality
  • Diet*
  • Dietary Fats / administration & dosage
  • Dietary Fiber / administration & dosage
  • Female
  • Folic Acid / administration & dosage
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Life Style
  • Middle Aged
  • Nutrition Surveys
  • Prospective Studies
  • Risk
  • Stroke / epidemiology*
  • Stroke / mortality
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Vitamin K 1 / administration & dosage*


  • Biomarkers
  • Dietary Fats
  • Dietary Fiber
  • Vitamin K 1
  • Folic Acid