Anidulafungin is a novel antifungal agent which, like other echinocandins, inhibits beta-(1,3)-D-glucan synthase and disrupts fungal cell-wall synthesis. It has marked antifungal activity against a broad spectrum of Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp., including amphotericin B- and triazole-resistant strains. In clinical trials, anidulafungin has primarily been evaluated in patients with oesophageal and invasive candidiasis. Preliminary data are emerging for other indications such as invasive aspergillosis. In a large, multicentre, double-blind, double-dummy, randomised trial in patients with oesophageal candidiasis, intravenous anidulafungin 50 mg/day was as effective as oral fluconazole 100 mg/day regarding end-of-treatment rates of endoscopic cure and clinical and microbiological success. Duration of treatment was approximately 2-3 weeks, and patients in both groups received a loading dose of study drug (twice the daily maintenance dose) on day 1. Anidulafungin is generally well tolerated. Across the dosage range 50-100 mg/day, adverse events appear not to be dose- or infusion-related. In the largest clinical trial to date, the most common treatment-related adverse events were phlebitis/thrombophlebitis, headache, nausea, vomiting and pyrexia.