Quantification of complex flow using MR phase imaging--a study of parameters influencing the phase/velocity relation

Magn Reson Imaging. 1992;10(1):13-23. doi: 10.1016/0730-725x(92)90368-a.


In this study, we describe how motion-induced phase angle is affected by different flow models and imaging parameters when using the MR flow phase mapping technique. In a phantom with straight as well as constricted tubes, simulating healthy and stenotic vessels, nonpulsatile flow in the velocity range 0-1 m/sec was maintained. The phase/velocity relation was studied for various degrees of complex flow caused by the constriction, and regions with a breakdown in linearity were determined. Further studies in these regions were made regarding the influence of pulse sequence parameters on the phase/velocity relation. The results showed that in poststenotic areas characterized by so-called separated flow, the phase/velocity relation became nonlinear due to dephasing effects. In regions with fully developed turbulent flow in straight tubes, however, no breakdown in linearity was observed. Parameters seen to have a substantial influence on the phase/velocity relation were first- and second-order velocity encoding and voxel size. Finally, a pilot in vivo demonstration of complex flow was done using a sequence designed to be robust with respect to linearity of the phase/velocity relation. The results indicate that the MR phase mapping technique can be used to measure flow quantitatively in regions with complex flow. This opens possibilities for future clinical use of the technique in the study of areas of complex flow such as valvular heart disease.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aortic Valve Stenosis / diagnosis*
  • Blood Flow Velocity
  • Blood Vessels / pathology
  • Constriction, Pathologic / diagnosis
  • Humans
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods*
  • Models, Cardiovascular
  • Models, Structural
  • Vascular Diseases / diagnosis*