Background: The early growth response 1 gene (Egr1) encodes for an immediate to early response transcription factor that is upregulated by changes in vascular strain and hypoxia and in turn upregulates the downstream expressions of a number of angiogenic growth factors. We therefore hypothesized that early growth response 1 may be a critical early messenger governing revascularization in the setting of acute vascular occlusions.
Methods: C57 BL/6 mice deficient in the Egr1 gene (knockout) and their wild-type litter mates underwent ligation and excision of the femoral artery with or without the previous administration of 2.7 x 10(9) particle units of an adenoviral vector coding for the vascular endothelial growth factor gene (VEGF) or Egr1. Distal hind limb perfusion was serially measured in these animals with laser Doppler perfusion imaging.
Results: Wild-type mice (n = 9) had nearly complete restitution of hind limb perfusion by day 35 after ligation. In contrast, all noninjected Egr1 knockout mice (n = 5) had severe ipsilateral limb necrosis develop between 1 and 4 days after ligation (P <.0001). Egr1 knockout mice injected with VEGF vector (n = 4) demonstrated significantly improved perfusion relative to baseline by postligation day 28, which persisted to postligation day 35 (P <.05). Egr1 knockout animals injected with Egr1 vector (n = 7) demonstrated a partial recovery of hind limb perfusion relative to VEGF vector-treated knockout animals at postligation day 4 (P <.01), which persisted to day 35.
Conclusions: These findings suggest that early growth response 1 plays a pivotal role in reperfusion responses to vascular occlusion in mice and possibly other mammals.