Different lactic acid bacteria have often been administered as a dietary means to enhance immune system activity. Based on this statement, the aim of the current work was to test the effects of a Lactobacillus casei DN114001 fermented milk consumption on the immune response capacity in middle-age volunteers. Forty-five healthy volunteers, 24 women and 21 men (aged: 51-58 years), were randomized into two groups to receive three cups per day of a L. casei DN114001 (10(8)-10(10) ufc/g) fermented milk (n = 23), or placebo (n = 22), during an 8-week period. Measurements were performed before (day 0), and after the nutritional intervention (day 56). After the trial, no changes in immune cell proportions were detected, but the probiotic-treated group increased oxidative burst capacity of monocytes (probiotic group: p = 0.029; placebo group: p = 0.625), as well as NK cells tumoricidal activity (probiotic group: p = 0.023; placebo group: p = 0.125). Results showed that daily intake of fermented milk containing Lactobacillus casei DN114001 could have a positive effect in modulating the innate immune defense in healthy-middle-age people.