Gender differences in the prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints might be explained by differences in the effect of exposure to work-related physical and psychosocial risk factors. A systematic review was conducted to examine gender differences in the relations between these risk factors and musculoskeletal complaints. Several electronic databases were searched. The strength of the evidence was determined on the basis of the methodological quality and consistency of the study results. For lifting, strong evidence was found that men have a higher risk of back complaints than women. The same was found for the relation between hand-arm vibration and neck-shoulder complaints. For arm posture, strong evidence was found that women have a higher risk of neck-shoulder complaints than men. For social support, no evidence of a gender difference was found for either neck-shoulder or back complaints. For hand-wrist and lower-extremity complaints, inconclusive evidence was found due to a lack of high-quality studies.