Background: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are widely reported to inhibit carcinogenesis.
Objective: The objective was to review the literature on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the prevention and treatment of cancer as it pertains to cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.
Methods: We searched MEDLINE and performed a review of all published data on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and cutaneous oncogenesis.
Results: In vitro and animal data strongly suggest a role for cyclooxygenase-2 in the formation of actinic keratoses and squamous cell carcinomas. Further observational studies and clinical trials are needed to assess their putative role in chemoprevention.
Conclusions: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have activity against squamous cell carcinomas in vitro and in animal models, as well as in precursor lesions of squamous cell carcinomas. Human trials using selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors are currently in progress and should offer exciting information regarding the chemopreventative function of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.