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. 2004 Dec;50(12):2353-60.
doi: 10.1373/clinchem.2004.039701. Epub 2004 Sep 30.

Photonic Crystal Glucose-Sensing Material for Noninvasive Monitoring of Glucose in Tear Fluid

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Photonic Crystal Glucose-Sensing Material for Noninvasive Monitoring of Glucose in Tear Fluid

Vladimir L Alexeev et al. Clin Chem. .

Abstract

Background: We recently developed a photonic crystal glucose-sensing material, which consists of a crystalline colloidal array embedded within a polymer network of a polyacrylamide-poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogel with pendent phenylboronic acid groups. The aim of the present work was to improve this approach for application to noninvasive or minimally invasive monitoring of glucose.

Methods: We used new boronic acid derivatives such as 4-amino-3-fluorophenylboronic acid and 4-carboxy-3-fluorophenylboronic acid as the molecular recognition elements to achieve sensing at physiologic pH values.

Results: The improved photonic glucose-sensing material sensed glucose in the range of the 100 mumol/L concentrations found in tear fluid. The detection limits were approximately 1 mumol/L in synthetic tear fluid. The visually evident diffraction color shifted across the entire visible spectral region from red to blue over the physiologically relevant tear-fluid glucose concentrations. This sensing material is selective for glucose over galactose, mannose, and fructose.

Conclusions: These new glucose sensors have properties appropriate for use in such glucose-sensing applications as ocular inserts or diagnostic contact lenses for patients with diabetes mellitus.

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