Checking on DNA damage in S phase

Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2004 Oct;5(10):792-804. doi: 10.1038/nrm1493.


The precise replication of the genome and the continuous surveillance of its integrity are essential for survival and the avoidance of various diseases. Cells respond to DNA damage by activating a complex network of the so-called checkpoint pathways to delay their cell-cycle progression and repair the defects. In this review we integrate findings on the emerging mechanisms of activation, the signalling pathways and the spatio-temporal organization of the intra-S-phase DNA-damage checkpoint and its impact on the cell-cycle machinery, and discuss its biological significance.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins
  • Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism*
  • Cell Line
  • Checkpoint Kinase 1
  • Checkpoint Kinase 2
  • DNA Damage*
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Enzyme Activation
  • Genes, cdc
  • Humans
  • Protein Kinases / metabolism
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / genetics
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism
  • S Phase* / physiology
  • Signal Transduction / physiology
  • Time Factors
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • cdc25 Phosphatases / metabolism


  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Protein Kinases
  • Checkpoint Kinase 2
  • ATM protein, human
  • Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins
  • CHEK2 protein, human
  • Checkpoint Kinase 1
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • CDC25A protein, human
  • cdc25 Phosphatases