Resistance exercise has positive effects on bone mass, but little is known about the mechanisms by which this occurs. The purpose of this study was to determine if a single bout of moderate intensity resistance exercise alters biochemical markers of bone cell activity. Indices of bone turnover were measured in nine healthy, untrained men (21.9 +/- 1.2 yrs old), before and following a single 45 minute session of resistance exercise, and during a control trial. A cross-over design was used so that all participants performed both trials in random order. Blood samples were collected immediately before, immediately after, and at 1, 8, 24, and 48 hours post exercise and analyzed for bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), type I collagen propeptide (PICP), and type I collagen N-telopeptide (sNTX). Urine from the second morning void was collected over four days (day before, day of, and two days following exercise) and analyzed for type I collagen N-telopeptide (uNTX). Exercise resulted in a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the ratio of biochemical markers of bone formation to bone resorption eight hours post exercise, largely due to a decrease in sNTX. Markers return to baseline within 24 hrs. These data suggest that moderate intensity resistance training acutely reduces bone resorption, leading to a favorable change in overall bone turnover, for at least 8 hours post exercise in untrained young men. Further work is needed to determine if long-term benefits to bone strength follow with persistent training.