Neurodevelopmental characteristics of children with learning impairments classified according to the double-deficit hypothesis

J Learn Disabil. Sep-Oct 2004;37(5):451-61. doi: 10.1177/00222194040370050701.


The double-deficit model has been examined primarily in relation to reading. We investigated whether children classified according to the double-deficit model would exhibit differences in other neuropsychological domains. Children referred for learning problems (N = 188), ages 7 to 11, were classified by double-deficit subtype. Only three of the four groups predicted by the model could be identified. There were no group differences in IQ or attention problems. The three groups showed different neuropsychological profiles, involving functional domains other than reading and language. Differences also emerged in nonverbal low-level information processing. The double-deficit group was generally most severely affected. The double-deficit groupings identify children with different neuropsychological profiles and variation in the efficiency of basic online information processing, extending beyond the oral and written language domain.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Anomia / diagnosis*
  • Anomia / psychology
  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / diagnosis*
  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / psychology
  • Child
  • Comorbidity
  • Dyslexia / diagnosis*
  • Dyslexia / psychology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mental Processes
  • Neuropsychological Tests / statistics & numerical data*
  • Psychometrics
  • Reaction Time