Transcription activity of chromatin is associated with histone acetylation which is regulated by recruitment of histone acetyltransferases and deacetylases (HDAC) to specific chromatin regions. We have tested how expression of a transfected or stably introduced gene correlates with histone acetylation. Our results demonstrate that expression of transiently transfected green fluorescence protein (GFP) genes is significantly enhanced by HDAC inhibitors. Although HDAC treatment did not induce noticeable changes in the chromatin structure of genomic DNA, chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that more transiently transfected DNA is assembled into chromatin containing acetylated histones in HDAC inhibitor treated cells when compared to untreated cells. For stably integrated GFP, the expression response to HDAC inhibitors varies between independent stable cell lines. However, there was no difference in histone acetylation associated with the integrated transgene between HDAC inhibitor responsive and non-responsive cells. Furthermore, the overall enhancement of transgene expression by HDAC inhibitors was not as pronounced as in transiently transfected cells.