Outcomes of children at 2 years after planned cesarean birth versus planned vaginal birth for breech presentation at term: the International Randomized Term Breech Trial

Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2004 Sep;191(3):864-71. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2004.06.056.


Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether planned cesarean delivery for the singleton fetus in breech presentation at term reduces the risk of death or neurodevelopmental delay at 2 years of age.

Study design: In selected centers in the Term Breech Trial, children were screened for abnormalities at > or =2 years of age with the Ages and Stages Questionnaire, followed by a neurodevelopmental assessment if the Ages and Stages Questionnaire score was abnormal.

Results: A total of 923 of 1159 children (79.6%) from 85 centers were followed to 2 years of age. The risk of death or neurodevelopmental delay was no different for the planned cesarean than for the planned vaginal birth groups (14 children [3.1%] vs 13 children [2.8%]; relative risk, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.52- 2.30; P = .85; risk difference, +0.3%; 95% CI, -1.9%, +2.4%).

Conclusion: Planned cesarean delivery is not associated with a reduction in risk of death or neurodevelopmental delay in children at 2 years of age.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Breech Presentation*
  • Cesarean Section*
  • Child, Preschool
  • Delivery, Obstetric*
  • Developmental Disabilities
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Gestational Age
  • Humans
  • Infant Mortality
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Nervous System / growth & development
  • Pregnancy
  • Risk Factors
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Treatment Outcome*