Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) activity is required for growth factor-induced cytoskeletal regulation and cell migration. We previously found that in MTLn3 rat adenocarcinoma cells, EGF-stimulated induction of actin barbed ends and lamellipod extension specifically requires the p85/p110alpha isoform of PI 3-kinase. To further characterize signaling by distinct PI 3-kinase isoforms, we have developed MTLn3 cells that transiently or stably overexpress either p110alpha or p110beta. Transient overexpression of p110beta inhibited EGF-stimulated lamellipod extension, whereas p110alpha-transfected cells showed normal EGF-stimulated lamellipod extension. Similar results were obtained by overexpression of kinase-dead p110beta, suggesting that effects on cytoskeletal signaling were due to competition with p85/p110alpha complexes. Stable overexpression of p110alpha appeared to be toxic, based on the difficulty in obtaining stable overexpressing clones. In contrast, cells expressing a 2-fold increase in p110beta were readily obtainable. Interestingly, cells stably expressing p110beta showed a marked inhibition of EGF-stimulated lamellipod extension. Using computer-assisted analysis of time-lapse images, we found that overexpression of p110beta caused a nearly complete inhibition of motility. Cells overexpressing p110beta showed normal activation of Akt and Erk, suggesting that overall PI 3-kinase signaling was intact. A chimeric p110 molecule containing the p85-binding and Ras-binding domains of p110alpha and the C2, helical, and kinase domains of p110beta, was catalytically active yet also inhibited EGF-stimulated lamellipod extension. These data highlight the differential signaling by distinct p110 isoforms. Identification of effectors that are differently regulated by p110alpha versus p110beta will be important for understanding cell migration and its role in metastasis.
Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.