BRL1, a leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein kinase, is functionally redundant with BRI1 in regulating Arabidopsis brassinosteroid signaling

Plant J. 2004 Nov;40(3):399-409. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2004.02214.x.


BRI1-like receptor kinase (BRL1) was identified as an extragenic suppressor of a weak bri1 allele, bri1-5, in an activation-tagging genetic screen for novel brassinosteroid (BR) signal transduction regulators. BRL1 encodes a leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein kinase (LRR-RLK). Sequence alignment revealed that BRL1 is closely related to BRI1, which is involved in BR perception. Overexpression of a BRL1 cDNA, driven by a constitutive CaMV 35S promoter, recapitulates the bri1-5 suppression phenotypes, and partially complements the phenotypes of a null bri1 allele, bri1-4. Analysis of a BR-specific feedback response gene, CPD, indicates that BRL1 functions in BR signaling. BRL1 expression pattern overlaps with, but is distinct from, that of BRI1. In addition, both the expression level and in vitro kinase autophosphorylation activity of BRL1 are significantly lower than those of BRI1. bri1-5 brl1-1 double mutant plants have enhanced developmental defects relative to bri1-5 mutant plants, revealing that BRL1 plays a partially redundant role with BRI1 in controlling Arabidopsis growth and development. These findings enhance our understanding of functional redundancy and add an additional layer of complexity to RLK-mediated BR signaling transduction in Arabidopsis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Arabidopsis / enzymology*
  • Arabidopsis / genetics
  • Arabidopsis / growth & development
  • Arabidopsis Proteins / genetics
  • Arabidopsis Proteins / physiology*
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Phenotype
  • Plant Growth Regulators / physiology
  • Plant Leaves / growth & development
  • Protein Kinases / genetics
  • Protein Kinases / physiology
  • Receptors, Cell Surface / genetics
  • Receptors, Cell Surface / physiology*
  • Sequence Alignment
  • Signal Transduction
  • Steroids / physiology


  • Arabidopsis Proteins
  • BRL1 protein, Arabidopsis
  • Plant Growth Regulators
  • Receptors, Cell Surface
  • Steroids
  • Protein Kinases
  • BRI1 protein, Arabidopsis