CRR1, a gene encoding a putative transglycosidase, is required for proper spore wall assembly in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Microbiology (Reading). 2004 Oct;150(Pt 10):3269-80. doi: 10.1099/mic.0.27314-0.


In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, sporulation is a developmental process that converts a single cell into four haploid spores. The four haploid nuclei are encapsulated within multilayered spore walls that protect them against stressful conditions. The formation of the spore-specific cell wall is a highly coordinated process that requires the participation of enzymic activities for biosynthesis, degradation, and cross-linking between components. Here the sporulation-specific gene CRR1, encoding a putative transglycosidase that is required for proper spore wall assembly, is described. Both the transcription of CRR1 and the synthesis of Crr1p were induced biphasically under sporulating conditions, with a first expression peak displaying kinetics similar to those of the middle to middle-late sporulation-specific genes, and a second late peak after 24 h under these conditions. Localization studies revealed that Crr1p localized to the spore wall that surrounds each of the four ascospores within the mature asci. Mutation of this gene had no effect on the efficiency of spore formation. However, crr1 mutant spores were sensitive to hydrolytic enzymes such as glusulase and to heat-shock treatments, underscoring the importance of this gene in the proper formation and assembly of the ascospore wall. Moreover, the deletion of CRR1 had additive effects with respect to the sensitivity of cda1 cda2 mutants to these treatments. Interestingly, overexpression of CRR1 not only complemented the phenotype of the crr1 strain but also rendered spores more resistant to the stress conditions than the wild-type. Like other mutants impaired in the formation of the spore outer layer, crr1 mutants were permeable to Calcofluor White. Finally, detailed analysis by electron microscopy of the spore walls in the crr1 mutants revealed a defect in the assembly of the spore wall components, suggesting a role for Crr1p in the cross-linking between the inner (glucan/mannoprotein) and the outer (chitosan/dityrosine) spore layers.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cell Wall / physiology
  • Glycoside Hydrolases / genetics
  • Glycoside Hydrolases / metabolism*
  • Glycoside Hydrolases / physiology*
  • Multienzyme Complexes / metabolism*
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / genetics
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / physiology*
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins / genetics
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins / physiology*
  • Spores, Fungal / chemistry
  • Spores, Fungal / physiology*
  • Transferases / metabolism*


  • Multienzyme Complexes
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins
  • transglycosidase enzyme system
  • Transferases
  • Crr1 protein, S cerevisiae
  • Glycoside Hydrolases