Differences in neuropsychological performance associated with ethnicity in children with HIV-1 infection: preliminary findings

Appl Neuropsychol. 2004;11(1):47-53. doi: 10.1207/s15324826an1101_6.


This study investigated the relationship between ethnicity (African American and European American) and neuropsychological performance in two specific neuropsychological domains (language and speed of information processing) in a group of HIV-1+ children. The Expressive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised and the Rapid Color Naming subtest of the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing were administered to 5- to 7-year-old children (n = 22) as part of a comprehensive research or clinical protocol. African American children scored lower than European American children (p < .05) on both procedures. The observed performance difference emerged despite the fact that there were no group differences in age, immunologic clinical categories, intellect, level of maternal education, or CD4+ percentage and after using stringent exclusionary criteria, including history of enrollment in special education services and the presence of other chronic medical conditions. The implications of such findings are discussed within biological and demographic frameworks.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Color Perception
  • Cross-Cultural Comparison
  • Cultural Diversity*
  • Drug Therapy, Combination
  • Ethnic Groups / psychology*
  • European Continental Ancestry Group / psychology
  • Female
  • HIV Infections / diagnosis
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy
  • HIV Infections / ethnology*
  • HIV Infections / psychology
  • HIV-1*
  • Humans
  • Language Development Disorders / diagnosis
  • Language Development Disorders / ethnology
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Neuropsychological Tests / statistics & numerical data*
  • Psychometrics / statistics & numerical data
  • Reaction Time
  • Reproducibility of Results


  • Anti-HIV Agents