This study investigated the relationship between ethnicity (African American and European American) and neuropsychological performance in two specific neuropsychological domains (language and speed of information processing) in a group of HIV-1+ children. The Expressive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised and the Rapid Color Naming subtest of the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing were administered to 5- to 7-year-old children (n = 22) as part of a comprehensive research or clinical protocol. African American children scored lower than European American children (p < .05) on both procedures. The observed performance difference emerged despite the fact that there were no group differences in age, immunologic clinical categories, intellect, level of maternal education, or CD4+ percentage and after using stringent exclusionary criteria, including history of enrollment in special education services and the presence of other chronic medical conditions. The implications of such findings are discussed within biological and demographic frameworks.