Heparin and activin-binding determinants in follistatin and FSTL3

Endocrinology. 2005 Jan;146(1):130-6. doi: 10.1210/en.2004-1041. Epub 2004 Oct 7.


Local regulation of pituitary FSH secretion and many other cellular processes by follistatin (FS) can be ascribed to its potent ability to bind and bioneutralize activin, in conjunction with binding to cell surface heparan-sulfate proteoglycans through a basic heparin-binding sequence (HBS; residues 75-86) in the first of the three FS domains. The FS homolog, FSTL3, also binds activin, but lacks any HBS and cannot associate with cell surfaces. We have used mutational analyses to define the determinants for heparin binding and activin interaction in FS and to determine the effects of conferring heparin binding to FSTL3. Mutants expressed from 283F cells were tested for cell surface and heparin affinity binding, for competitive activin binding and for bioactivity by suppression of pituitary cell FSH secretion. Replacement of the HBS or the full-length FS-domain 1 abolished cell surface binding but enhanced activin binding 4- to 8-fold. Surface binding was partially reduced after mutation of either lysine pair 75/76 or 81/82 and eliminated after mutation of both pairs. The 75/76 mutation reduced activin binding and, therefore, pituitary cell bioactivity by 5-fold. However, insertion of the HBS into FSTL3 did not restore heparin binding or pituitary-cell bioactivity. These results show that 1) the residues within the HBS are necessary but not sufficient for heparin binding, and 2) the HBS also harbors determinants for activin binding. Introduction of the full domain from FS conferred heparin binding to FSTL3, but activin binding was abolished. This implies an evolutionary safeguard against surface binding by FSTL3, supporting other evidence for physiological differences between FS and FSTL3.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Activins / metabolism*
  • Amino Acid Motifs / genetics
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Biological Assay
  • COS Cells
  • Cell Line
  • Chlorocebus aethiops
  • Chromatography, Affinity
  • Follistatin / genetics*
  • Follistatin / metabolism*
  • Follistatin-Related Proteins / genetics*
  • Follistatin-Related Proteins / metabolism
  • Heparin / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Lysine
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Mutation
  • Rats
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins / genetics
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins / metabolism
  • Recombinant Proteins / genetics
  • Recombinant Proteins / metabolism


  • Follistatin
  • Follistatin-Related Proteins
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins
  • Recombinant Proteins
  • Activins
  • Heparin
  • Lysine