The effects of diet, sulfonylurea, and Repaglinide therapy on clinical and metabolic parameters in type 2 diabetic patients during Ramadan

Endocr Res. 2004 May;30(2):169-77. doi: 10.1081/erc-200027375.


Background and aim: Diabetes and its treatment can cause problems for the Muslim population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different therapy models on clinical and metabolic status in type 2 diabetic patients during Ramadan.

Material and methods: Fifty-two type 2 diabetic patients were included to this study. Twelve of patients were on diabetic diet only before and during Ramadan (Group 1). Forty of patients had had sulfonylurea (Glimepiride 23 patients, gliclazide 17 patients) before Ramadan. Thirteen of these patients were on a single dose sulfonylurea (Glimepiride 8 patients, gliclazide 5 patients) (Group 2) and 27 were on Repaglinide 2 x 2 mg (Group 3) during Ramadan. Beta-hydroxybutyric acid, glucose, fructosamine, HbA1c, lipid levels and body weight were measured before and after Ramadan.

Results: Body weight, fasting plasma glucose, fructosamine, HbA1c, total cholesterol were not changed in groups during the study. Triglyceride level decreased after Ramadan in groups 2 (p = 0.002) and 3 (p = 0.024). HDL-cholesterol level increased in group 3 (p = 0.022). Fasting capillary beta-hydroxybutyric acid level increased in group 1 (p = 0.034) and didn't change in groups 2 and 3 during the Ramadan. Only one hypoglycemic event occurred at day 6 of Ramadan in patients in group 2 (the patient was on 3 mg glimepiride).

Conclusion: Our results conclude that Ramadan fasting affects metabolic parameters in type 2 diabetes and hypoglycemia should be kept in mind especially in patients using sulfonylurea treatment. Ramadan fasting is not advised for type 2 diabetics while taking medical therapy. If the patient wants Ramadan fasting, these patients using Repaglinide can reduce the frequency of hypoglycemia.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Controlled Clinical Trial

MeSH terms

  • 3-Hydroxybutyric Acid / blood
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • Carbamates / therapeutic use*
  • Cholesterol, HDL / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / diet therapy*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / drug therapy*
  • Fasting* / blood
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Islam*
  • Middle Aged
  • Piperidines / therapeutic use*
  • Postprandial Period
  • Sulfonylurea Compounds / therapeutic use*
  • Triglycerides / blood


  • Blood Glucose
  • Carbamates
  • Cholesterol, HDL
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Piperidines
  • Sulfonylurea Compounds
  • Triglycerides
  • repaglinide
  • 3-Hydroxybutyric Acid