Primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT), caused by solitary parathyroid adenomas in 85% of cases and diffuse hyperplasia in most of the remaining cases, overproduces parathyroid hormone (PTH), which mobilizes calcium to the blood stream. Renal stones, osteoporosis and diffuse symptoms of hypercalcaemia, such as constipation, fatigue and weakness are well-known complications. However, in Western Europe and North America, patients with pHPT are nowadays usually discovered during an early, asymptomatic phase of the disease. It has been reported that patients suffering from symptomatic pHPT have increased mortality, mainly due to an overrepresentation of cardiovascular death. pHPT is reported to be associated with hypertension, disturbances in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and structural and functional alterations in the vascular wall. Recently, studies have indicated an association between pHPT and heart disease, and studies in vitro have produced a number of theoretical approaches. An increased prevalence of cardiac structural abnormalities such as left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and valvular and myocardial calcification has been observed. Associations have been found between PTH and LVH, and between LVH and serum calcium. LV systolic function does not seem to be affected in patients with pHPT, whereas any influence on LV diastolic performance needs further evaluation. The aim of this review is to clarify the connection between pHPT and cardiac disease.