Measuring cognitive insight in middle-aged and older patients with psychotic disorders

Schizophr Res. 2004 Dec 1;71(2-3):297-305. doi: 10.1016/j.schres.2004.02.019.


The study examined the psychometric properties, factor structure and validity of a recently developed measure of insight, the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS) and tested the relationship between the BCIS and psychiatric symptoms in a sample of middle-aged and older patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. The BCIS measures the ability of respondents to observe and question their cognitive processes, whereas other insight scales focus primarily on knowledge about the presence of an illness and need for treatment. Participants were 164 middle-aged and older outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who completed a battery of measures assessing insight, symptoms of schizophrenia and symptoms of depression. The results of a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) supported the two-factor structure previously reported for the BCIS, with one factor labeled self-reflectiveness and the other labeled self-certainty. The BCIS showed adequate reliability and a moderate correlation with the Birchwood Insight Scale (IS). The BCIS correlated with some PANSS subscales measuring symptoms of schizophrenia, but did not correlate at a significant level with symptoms of depression. The findings suggest that middle-aged and older outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder respond on the BCIS in a manner similar to a younger inpatient population. This instrument is a promising tool for measuring the role of cognitive change in a broad range of patients experiencing psychosis.

Publication types

  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Cognition Disorders / diagnosis*
  • Cognition Disorders / etiology*
  • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
  • Factor Analysis, Statistical
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neuropsychological Tests*
  • Psychotic Disorders / complications*
  • Psychotic Disorders / diagnosis
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Schizophrenia / complications*
  • Schizophrenia / diagnosis
  • Severity of Illness Index