Background: Moxifloxacin is a quinolone antimicrobial that has potent activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. To optimize moxifloxacin dose and dose regimen, pharmacodynamic antibiotic-exposure targets associated with maximal microbial kill and complete suppression of drug resistance in M. tuberculosis must be identified.
Methods: We used a novel in vitro pharmacodynamic infection model of tuberculosis in which we exposed M. tuberculosis to moxifloxacin with a pharmacokinetic half-life of decline similar to that encountered in humans. Data obtained from this model were mathematically modeled, and the drug-exposure breakpoint associated with the suppression of drug resistance was determined. Monte-Carlo simulations were performed to determine the probability that 10,000 clinical patients taking different doses of moxifloxacin would achieve or exceed the drug-exposure breakpoint needed to suppress resistance to moxifloxacin in M. tuberculosis.
Results: The ratio of the moxifloxacin-free (non-protein-bound) area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h to the minimum inhibitory concentration associated with complete suppression of the drug-resistant mutant population was 53. For patients taking moxifloxacin doses of 400, 600, or 800 mg/day, the calculated target-attainment rates to suppress drug resistance were 59%, 86%, and 93%, respectively.
Conclusion: A moxifloxacin dose of 800 mg/day is likely to achieve excellent M. tuberculosis microbial kill and to suppress drug resistance. However, tolerability of this higher dose is still unknown.