Hormonal contraceptive use, cervical ectopy, and the acquisition of cervical infections

Sex Transm Dis. 2004 Sep;31(9):561-7. doi: 10.1097/01.olq.0000137904.56037.70.


Background and objectives: Several previous studies have suggested that hormonal contraception could be associated with increased risk of cervical infections. However, few high-quality prospective studies have examined this relationship.

Goal: The goal of this study was to measure the effect of oral contraceptives (OC) and depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) on the acquisition of cervical chlamydial and gonococcal infections.

Study: Women attending 2 reproductive health centers in Baltimore, MD, were enrolled into a prospective cohort study. Participants were 15 to 45 years and were initiating OCs or DMPA or not using hormonal contraception. Interviews, physical examinations, and testing for incident cervical infections were conducted at 3, 6, and 12 months.

Results: The analysis included 819 women. Most were single (77%) and nulliparous (75%); 43% were black. Median age was 22 years. During the study, 45 women acquired a chlamydial or gonococcal infection (6.2 per 100 women-years). DMPA use (hazard ratio [HR], 3.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-8.5), but not OC use (HR, 1.5; 95% CI, 0.6-3.5), was significantly associated with increased acquisition of cervical infections after adjusting for other risk factors. Cervical ectopy was not an important mediator of cervical infection risk.

Conclusions: DMPA use, but not OC use, appeared to be significantly associated with increased acquisition of cervical chlamydial and gonococcal infections.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Oral
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Baltimore / epidemiology
  • Cervix Uteri / pathology
  • Cohort Studies
  • Contraception / statistics & numerical data*
  • Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal / administration & dosage
  • Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal / therapeutic use*
  • Delayed-Action Preparations
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Medroxyprogesterone Acetate / administration & dosage
  • Medroxyprogesterone Acetate / therapeutic use
  • Prospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases / etiology
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases / prevention & control
  • Uterine Cervical Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Uterine Cervical Diseases / etiology
  • Uterine Cervical Diseases / prevention & control


  • Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal
  • Delayed-Action Preparations
  • Medroxyprogesterone Acetate