The recruitment of monocytes into tissue is associated with both acute and chronic inflammation. Although monocyte migration is measured in vitro by monocyte chemotaxis, this technique is often difficult to determine the specific quantitative contribution of a monocyte chemotaxin. We have developed a sensitive sandwich ELISA for the detection of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), a highly specific monocyte activating/chemotactic peptide. Polyclonal antibodies were generated from rabbits. The IgG fraction of the antiserum was isolated by a protein A column, with a portion of the antibodies biotinylated. Avidin-conjugated horse radish peroxidase was used for enzymatic, colorimetric analysis. The lower threshold for detection of MCP-1 was 50 pg/ml, and the ELISA was specific for MCP-1, since it failed to recognize other cytokines in a dose-dependent fashion. Furthermore, this ELISA had the capacity to measure endothelial cell and pulmonary fibroblast-derived MCP-1. The development of a sensitive ELISA for the detection MCP-1 is significant, since it will allow the measurement MCP-1 from biologically relevant fluids, and aid in establishing whether MCP-1 is present in disease.