Amniotic membrane transplantation in ocular surface disorders

J Cell Physiol. 2005 Mar;202(3):849-51. doi: 10.1002/jcp.20181.


Chronic ocular surface disorders, which can result in severe functional impairment, have been viewed for decades as untreatable diseases. In 1995, the reintroduction of amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT), either alone or associated with limbal stem cell transplantation, has offered new hope of using tissue and cell therapy strategies to repair ocular surface disorders. Amniotic membrane (AM) has been found to exert its effects by acting as a substrate for the growth of ocular surface epithelia, by suppressing inflammation and scarring and by serving as an anti-microbial barrier. Moreover, AM has recently been used as a substrate for ex vivo expansion of corneal epithelial cells for ocular surface reconstruction. Notwithstanding the substantial agreement among Authors regarding its clinical efficacy, there are still many uncertainties regarding the fate of grafted AM and consequently the mechanisms through which it exerts its long-term effects. Further studies including controlled clinical trials with numerous cases are required to understand which ocular surface conditions are certain to benefit from AM transplantation and how its mechanical properties interact with the mediators produced to favor ocular surface reconstruction.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amnion / transplantation*
  • Animals
  • Corneal Diseases / pathology*
  • Corneal Diseases / surgery*
  • Humans
  • Stem Cell Transplantation
  • Transplantation, Homologous