Can endometrial infection/inflammation explain implantation failure, spontaneous abortion, and preterm birth after in vitro fertilization?

Fertil Steril. 2004 Oct;82(4):799-804. doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2004.05.076.


The endometrial cavity is frequently invaded by microorganisms, and subclinical endometrial infection or inflammation may play a role in implantation failure after IVF, spontaneous abortion, and preterm birth. Microbial products and host-inflammatory mediators such as cytokines and chemokines can cause trophoblast apoptosis and the cascade of events leading to expulsion of the embryo or fetus.

Publication types

  • Comment
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Abortion, Spontaneous / microbiology*
  • Embryo Implantation*
  • Endometritis / complications*
  • Endometritis / metabolism
  • Endometritis / microbiology
  • Endotoxins / metabolism*
  • Female
  • Fertilization in Vitro*
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Infant, Premature
  • Infant, Very Low Birth Weight
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications, Infectious / microbiology
  • Premature Birth / microbiology*


  • Endotoxins