Objective: The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) showed that intensive lifestyle intervention reduced the risk of diabetes by 58%. This paper examines demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral factors related to achieving weight loss and physical activity goals in the DPP lifestyle participants.
Research methods and procedures: Lifestyle participants (n = 1079; mean age = 50.6, BMI = 33.9, 68% female, and 46% from minority groups) had goals of 7% weight loss and 150 min/wk of physical activity. Goal achievement was assessed at the end of the 16-session core curriculum (approximately week 24) and the final intervention visit (mean = 3.2 years) as a function of demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral variables.
Results: Forty-nine percent met the weight loss goal and 74% met the activity goal initially, while 37% and 67%, respectively, met these goals long-term. Men and those with lower initial BMI were more likely to meet activity but not weight loss goals. Hispanic, Asian, and Native Americans were more likely to meet the long-term activity goals, and whites were more likely to meet the initial weight loss goal. In multivariate analyses, meeting the long-term weight loss goal and both activity goals increased with age, while psychosocial and depression measures were unrelated to goal achievement. Dietary self-monitoring was positively related to meeting both weight loss and activity goals, and meeting the activity goal was positively related to meeting the weight loss goal. Participants who met initial goals were 1.5 to 3.0 times more likely to meet these goals long-term.
Discussion: Success at meeting the weight loss and activity goals increased with age. Initial success predicted long-term success. Self-monitoring and meeting activity goals were related to achieving and sustaining weight loss.