Expression of colony-stimulating factor-1 in the human uterus and placenta

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1992 Apr;74(4):850-8. doi: 10.1210/jcem.74.4.1548350.


Previous studies in the mouse have strongly implicated colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) in the regulation of placental development. In this study of human pregnancy, we detected CSF-1 in serum, endometrium, placenta, chorion, amnion, and amniotic fluid, with significant increases in serum and endometrial samples from the first trimester compared to levels in nonpregnant controls. CSF-1 mRNA was demonstrated in all of these tissues, except amnion, with a significant increase within the first trimester endometrial samples over nonpregnant control values. In addition to the major 4.0-kilobase mRNA, other species of CSF-1 mRNA were detected, which were shown to be due to alternative splicing within exon 6 and the alternative use of exon 9 or 10. In the endometrium, CSF-1 was localized to glandular epithelial and endothelial cells. In first trimester placenta, CSF-1 was in the cytotrophoblasts lining the villous core and in the cytotrophoblastic shell. During the second trimester, CSF-1 was localized to villous mesenchymal cells. By the third trimester, CSF-1 was only detected in cells lining the villous vessels. The detection of CSF-1 during gestation strongly supports a role for CSF-1 in the regulation of placental function in humans by autocrine and/or paracrine mechanisms.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Amnion / chemistry
  • Amniotic Fluid / chemistry
  • Base Sequence
  • Blotting, Northern
  • Chorion / chemistry
  • Endometrium / chemistry
  • Female
  • Gene Expression / genetics
  • Humans
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / analysis*
  • Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / blood
  • Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / genetics
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Placenta / chemistry*
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • RNA, Messenger / analysis
  • RNA, Messenger / genetics
  • Radioimmunoassay
  • Transcription, Genetic
  • Uterus / chemistry*


  • RNA, Messenger
  • Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor