This study shows that in The Netherlands there is a changing pattern in incidence of renal replacement therapy over time when adjusted for age and sex. There has been an almost linear increase in crude incidence rates during four decades. However, unlike the situation elsewhere in the Western world, a flattening of the curve has been observed during the last six years. The growing incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) due to especially hypertensive renovascular disease and diabetes mellitus type 2 has been neutralized by a decrease in ESRD due to glomerulonephritis, urologic interstitial nephritis, and diabetes mellitus type 1. The latter observations suggest that renoprotective interventions can be successful on a population level, and thus, provide hope for the future. To battle the increase in ESRD due to atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus type 2-related renal disease, it is important that screening programs are being developed that enable us to identify in an early phase patients at risk for development of ESRD who may benefit from preventive strategies. Population screening for albuminuria will be helpful in this respect.