Objective: The objective of this randomized trial was to assess the antirestenotic effects of phosphorylcholine (PC)-coated stents as well as of abciximab in small coronary arteries when compared with percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) and placebo respectively.
Background: Stent coating with PC has been shown to reduce protein absorption and platelet activation which may reduce the risk of restenosis. Furthermore, on the basis of nondedicated studies abciximab is believed to reduce the risk of restenosis after coronary interventions.
Methods: A total of 502 patients with lesions situated in small coronary arteries (vessel diameter </=2.5 mm) were randomly assigned to be treated with either PC-coated stents (n = 253) or PTCA (n = 249) and with either abciximab (n = 251) or placebo (n = 251) with the use of a 2 x 2 factorial design. All patients were pretreated with 600 mg clopidogrel. The primary end-point was the incidence of angiographic restenosis (>/=50% diameter stenosis) at follow-up; death or myocardial infarction, and target vessel revascularization (TVR), were assessed as secondary end-points.
Results: Angiographic restenosis did not differ between patients treated with PC-coated stents or with PTCA (39.0% vs. 34.2%; P = 0.30) and between patients receiving abciximab or placebo (39.3% vs. 34.3%; P = 0.29). Similarly, the need for TVR at 1-year follow-up did not differ between patients receiving PC-coated stents or PTCA (20.2% vs. 20.5%; P = 0.98) as well as between patients treated with abciximab or placebo (18.7% vs. 21.9%; P = 0.44).
Conclusions: PC-coated stents and abciximab failed to reduce the incidence of angiographic restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention of small coronary arteries. These data strengthen the belief that future studies on prevention of restenosis in small coronary arteries should focus on drug-eluting stents.