IL-17A was cloned more than 10 years ago and six IL-17 family members (IL-17A-F) have subsequently been described. IL-17A is largely produced by activated memory T lymphocytes but stimulates innate immunity and host defense. IL-17A and IL-17F both mobilize neutrophils partly through granulopoeisis and CXC chemokine induction, as well as increased survival locally. IL-17A and IL-17F production by T lymphocytes is regulated by IL-23 independent of T cell receptor activation. Increasing evidence shows that IL-17 family members play an active role in inflammatory diseases, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. This places IL-17 family members and their receptors as potential targets for future pharmacotherapy.