Patterns of intra-cluster correlation from primary care research to inform study design and analysis

J Clin Epidemiol. 2004 Aug;57(8):785-94. doi: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2003.12.013.


Objective: To provide information concerning the magnitude of the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for cluster-based studies set in primary care.

Study design and setting: Reanalysis of data from 31 cluster-based studies in primary care to estimate intraclass correlation coefficients from random effects models using maximum likelihood estimation.

Results: ICCs were estimated for 1,039 variables. The median ICC was 0.010 (interquartile range [IQR] 0 to 0.032, range 0 to 0.840). After adjusting for individual- and cluster-level characteristics, the median ICC was 0.005 (IQR 0 to 0.021). A given measure showed widely varying ICC estimates in different datasets. In six datasets, the ICCs for SF-36 physical functioning scale ranged from 0.001 to 0.055 and for SF-36 general health from 0 to 0.072. In four datasets, the ICC for systolic blood pressure ranged from 0 to 0.052 and for diastolic blood pressure from 0 to 0.108.

Conclusion: The precise magnitude of between-cluster variation for a given measure can rarely be estimated in advance. Studies should be designed with reference to the overall distribution of ICCs and with attention to features that increase efficiency.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cluster Analysis
  • Data Interpretation, Statistical
  • Health Services Research / methods*
  • Humans
  • Primary Health Care / methods*
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic / methods
  • Research Design