Long-term continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) often causes peritoneal fibrosis and sclerosis with a loss of function, and some CAPD patients develop sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis. Glucose-based peritoneal dialysis fluids readily produce glucose degradation products by heat sterilization, and glucose degradation products accelerate the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGE) in the peritoneal cavity. The accumulation of AGE is observed in peritoneal mesothelial and submesothelial layers in CAPD patients, accompanied by enhanced expression of various growth factors and peritoneal thickening. The expression of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1), macrophage-colony stimulating factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is distributed in the peritoneum similarly to that of AGE. In CAPD patients with low ultrafiltration (UF) capacity, peritoneal membrane is thickened owing to an increase in the number of cells such as fibroblasts and macrophages and collagen in the submesothelial layer. AGE is detected in the fibroblasts and macrophages as well as degenerated collagen. These cells in the submucosal layer are almost positive for the receptor for AGE (RAGE) and uptake AGE. The intensity of AGE accumulation and the expression of growth factors are associated with the severity of UF impairment. In fact, the accumulation of AGE and the expression of growth factors are recognized most markedly in the peritoneum of CAPD patients with low UF and sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis. In conclusion, long-time CAPD with heat-sterilized peritoneal dialysis fluid promotes AGE accumulation in the peritoneal membrane and alteration in peritoneal cell function and dialysis quality, followed by peritoneal sclerosis, and, finally, sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis.