Metabolic syndrome disorders in urban black Zimbabweans with type 2 Diabetes mellitus

Cent Afr J Med. 2004 Mar-Apr;50(3-4):24-9.


Objective: The main aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome disorders and their interrelations in black Zimbabwean type 2 diabetic patients.

Study design: Prospective cross sectional study.

Setting: Outpatient diabetic clinics at Harare and Parirenyatwa tertiary hospitals.

Main outcome measures: We recruited 109 adult diabetic subjects attending a tertiary hospital Diabetic Clinic. Anthropometric and metabolic parameters were measured by standard methods. Eighty percent of the patients were hypertensive, 32% dyslipidaemic, 32% obese, 50% hyperinsulinaemic, 61% had poor glycaemic control and 43% of the participants had the metabolic syndrome. The means of BMI and triglycerides were significantly different in hyperinsulinaemic versus non-hyperinsulinaemic patients (p < 0.001 and 0.041 respectively), and diastolic blood pressure was significantly raised in the obese group (p = 0.043). The following significant associations were observed, hyperinsulinaemia with the metabolic syndrome (odds ratio = 3.9, p < 0.001) as well with obesity (odds ratio = 4.8, p < 0.001), however, only a weak association was observed between hypertension and hyperinsulinaemia (odds ratio = 2.5, p = 0.064). Patients exhibiting three metabolic disorders (dyslipidaemia, hypertension and obesity) were five times more likely to be hyperinsulinaemic (p = 0.025) and hypertensive patients were almost three times more likely to be hyperinsulinaemic.

Conclusion: In comparison to their counterparts from certain ethnic groups, this urban diabetic population is also burdened with a variety of metabolic disorders which are risk factors for coronary artery disease. In this population, hyperinsulinaemia has a relatively weak association with hypertension and the relationship between obesity versus diastolic blood pressure as well as hypertriglyceridaemia versus serum insulin levels requires further investigation.

MeSH terms

  • Black People / statistics & numerical data
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / ethnology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Metabolic Syndrome / complications
  • Metabolic Syndrome / epidemiology*
  • Metabolic Syndrome / ethnology
  • Middle Aged
  • Outpatient Clinics, Hospital / statistics & numerical data
  • Prevalence
  • Prospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Urban Health / statistics & numerical data*
  • Zimbabwe / epidemiology