Benchmarking a test of temporal orientation with data from american and taiwanese persons with Alzheimer's disease and american normal elderly

Neuroepidemiology. 2005;24(1-2):110-6. doi: 10.1159/000081610. Epub 2004 Oct 18.


Orientation questions are readily incorporated into longitudinal population surveys, but their value as a screening tool for cognitive impairment is uncertain. We evaluated the screening value of four orientation-to-time items (TTO) from the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) by determining their association with full-scale MMSE scores. Data collected under protocols with strict eligibility criteria in the US (64 normal elderly, 242 persons with probable Alzheimer's disease) and Taiwan (241 persons with probable Alzheimer's disease) were analyzed. The TTO and full-scale MMSE scores were significantly correlated (p < 0.05) in persons with a Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) score of 0 or 1; this was not significant in persons with a CDR of >1 (p > 0.05). Both TTO and MMSE were significantly associated with education in persons with 0-7 years of education; some MMSE items, but none of the TTO items, were associated with education in persons with more than 7 years of education. TTO may be a useful component of cognitive screening efforts.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Alzheimer Disease / epidemiology*
  • Alzheimer Disease / psychology*
  • Cohort Studies
  • Education
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Neuropsychological Tests
  • Orientation / physiology*
  • Reference Values
  • Sex Factors
  • Taiwan / epidemiology
  • Time Perception / physiology*
  • United States / epidemiology