The combination of cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone (CVP) is one of several standard treatment options for advanced follicular lymphoma. This, like similar chemotherapeutic regimens, induces response rates of 60% to 80%, with a median response duration of under 2 years. Rituximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody against CD20, is active in follicular lymphoma, both as monotherapy and in combination with chemotherapy. Previously untreated patients with stages III to IV follicular lymphoma were randomly assigned to receive either 8 cycles of CVP plus rituximab (R-CVP; n = 162) or CVP (n = 159). Overall and complete response rates were 81% and 41% in the R-CVP arm versus 57% and 10% in the CVP arm, respectively (P < .0001). At a median follow-up of 30 months, patients treated with R-CVP had a very significantly prolonged time to progression (median 32 months versus 15 months for CVP; P < .0001). Median time to treatment failure was 27 months in patients receiving R-CVP and 7 months in the CVP arm (P < .0001). Rituximab did not add significantly to the toxicity of CVP. The addition of rituximab to the CVP regimen significantly improves the clinical outcome in patients with previously untreated advanced follicular lymphoma, without increased toxicity.