Antiviral treatment of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections with nucleoside analogues has been well established for >2 decades, but isolation of drug-resistant HSV from immunocompetent patients has remained infrequent (0.1%-0.7% of isolates) during this period. Even when drug-resistant HSV is isolated from an immunocompetent patient, this virus, with rare exceptions, is cleared normally without adverse clinical outcome. Although drug-resistant HSV is more commonly isolated from immunocompromised patients (4%-7% of isolates) and is more likely to be clinically significant, the prevalence of drug-resistant HSV even among these patients, has been stable over the past 2 decades. Despite this stable prevalence, disease due to drug-resistant HSV remains an important problem for many immunocompromised patients, including those with HIV infection. This article reviews the prevalence, pathogenesis, and implications of drug-resistant HSV infections in HIV-infected patients.