Background: Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPTH) is highly prevalent among persons with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). SHPTH has been linked to uremic bone disease, vascular calcification, and a higher risk of death. Parathyroidectomy (PTX) can dramatically reduce parathyroid hormone (PTH) and phosphate levels; however, the relationship between PTX and survival is not known.
Methods: We conducted an observational matched cohort study utilizing data from the United States Renal Database System (USRDS) in which 4558 patients undergoing a first PTX while on hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis were individually matched by age, race, gender, cause of ESRD, dialysis duration, prior transplantation status, and dialysis modality to 4558 control patients who did not undergo PTX. Patients were followed from the date of PTX until they died or were lost to follow-up.
Results: The 30-day postoperative mortality rate following PTX was 3.1%. Long-term relative risks of death among patients undergoing PTX were estimated to be 10% to 15% lower than those of matched control patients not undergoing surgery. Survival curves between the 2 groups crossed 587 days following PTX. Median survival was 53.4 months (95% CI: 51.2-56.4) in the PTX group, and 46.8 months (95% CI: 44.7-48.9) in the control group.
Conclusion: PTX was associated with higher short-term, and lower long-term, mortality rates among U.S. patients receiving chronic dialysis. Measures to attenuate SHPTH may play an important role in reducing mortality among patients with end-stage renal disease.