Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in a population isolate: linkage to loci at 4q13.2, 5q33.3, 11q22, and 17p11

Am J Hum Genet. 2004 Dec;75(6):998-1014. doi: 10.1086/426154. Epub 2004 Oct 20.


Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD [MIM 143465]) is the most common behavioral disorder of childhood. Twin, adoption, segregation, association, and linkage studies have confirmed that genetics plays a major role in conferring susceptibility to ADHD. We applied model-based and model-free linkage analyses, as well as the pedigree disequilibrium test, to the results of a genomewide scan of extended and multigenerational families with ADHD from a genetic isolate. In these families, ADHD is highly comorbid with conduct and oppositional defiant disorders, as well as with alcohol and tobacco dependence. We found evidence of linkage to markers at chromosomes 4q13.2, 5q33.3, 8q11.23, 11q22, and 17p11 in individual families. Fine mapping applied to these regions resulted in significant linkage in the combined families at chromosomes 4q13.2 (two-point allele-sharing LOD score from LODPAL = 4.44 at D4S3248), 5q33.3 (two-point allele-sharing LOD score from LODPAL = 8.22 at D5S490), 11q22 (two-point allele-sharing LOD score from LODPAL = 5.77 at D11S1998; multipoint nonparametric linkage [NPL]-log[P value] = 5.49 at approximately 128 cM), and 17p11 (multipoint NPL-log [P value] >12 at approximately 12 cM; multipoint maximum location score 2.48 [alpha = 0.10] at approximately 12 cM; two-point allele-sharing LOD score from LODPAL = 3.73 at D17S1159). Additionally, suggestive linkage was found at chromosome 8q11.23 (combined two-point NPL-log [P value] >3.0 at D8S2332). Several of these regions are novel (4q13.2, 5q33.3, and 8q11.23), whereas others replicate already-published loci (11q22 and 17p11). The concordance between results from different analytical methods of linkage and the replication of data between two independent studies suggest that these loci truly harbor ADHD susceptibility genes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / genetics*
  • Chromosome Mapping
  • Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11 / genetics
  • Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17 / genetics
  • Chromosomes, Human, Pair 4 / genetics
  • Chromosomes, Human, Pair 5 / genetics
  • Colombia
  • Genetic Linkage / genetics*
  • Genome, Human*
  • Haplotypes / genetics*
  • Humans
  • Lod Score
  • Pedigree