Polymorphisms in angiotensin II type 1 receptor and angiotensin I-converting enzyme genes and breast cancer risk among Chinese women in Singapore

Carcinogenesis. 2005 Feb;26(2):459-64. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgh309. Epub 2004 Oct 21.


Angiotensin II is converted from its precursor by angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) and has been shown to mediate growth in breast cancer cell lines via ligand-induced activity through the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1). Earlier we showed that women with the low activity genotype of the ACE gene have a statistically significantly ( approximately 50%) reduced breast cancer risk compared with those possessing the high activity ACE genotype. To further test the hypothesis that angiotensin II participates in breast carcinogenesis through AGTR1, we examined genetic polymorphisms in the 5'-region of the AGTR1 gene (A-168G, C-535T and T-825A) in relation to risk of breast cancer in 258 breast cancer cases and 670 female controls within the Singapore Chinese Health Study. Relative to the homozygotes, individual genotypes with one or two copies of the respective allelic variants (putative low risk genotypes) were each associated with an approximately 30% reduction in risk of breast cancer. Risk of breast cancer decreased with increasing number of low risk AGTR1 genotypes after adjustment for potential confounders. Relative to those carrying no low risk genotypes (homozygous for A, C and T alleles for the three polymorphisms, respectively), the odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 0.84 (0.51-1.37) for women possessing one low risk genotype and 0.68 (0.46-1.01) for women possessing two or three low risk genotypes (P for trend = 0.05). When both AGTR1 and ACE gene polymorphisms were examined simultaneously, women possessing at least one AGTR1 low risk genotype in combination with the ACE low activity genotype had an odds ratio of 0.35 (95% confidence interval, 0.20-0.62) compared with those possessing the ACE high activity genotype and no AGTR1 low risk genotype. Our findings suggest that pharmacological inhibition of the angiotensin II effect by blockade of ACE and/or AGTR1 could be potential targets for the prevention and treatment of breast cancer.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Alleles
  • Breast Neoplasms / genetics*
  • Case-Control Studies
  • China
  • Female
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease*
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A / genetics*
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide / genetics*
  • Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1 / genetics*
  • Singapore


  • Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1
  • Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A