In an assay system using a human CYP3A4 reporter constructed with the promoter (+11 nt to -362 nt) and enhancer (-7.2 knt to -7.8 knt) regions including everted repeat separated by six nucleotides (ER-6) and direct repeat separated by three nucleotides (DR-3) motifs, the CYP3A4 transactivation was detected without overexpression of any nuclear receptors in rifampicin-treated HepG2 cells. Overexpression of human pregnane X receptor (hPXR) enhanced the transactivation. Rat CYP3A1 reporter constructed with the promoter region (+31 nt to -171 nt) including both DR-3 and ER-6 motifs was, however, not transactivated in rifampicin-treated cells, even after overexpression of hPXR. Although overexpression of retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRalpha) had no clear effect for both CYP3A reporters, co-expression of apolipoprotein AI regulatory protein-1 (ARP-1) with hPXR resulted in the rifampicin-induced transactivation of the CYP3A1 reporter. A truncated CYP3A4 reporter retaining the both motifs showed the rifampicin-induced transactivation by overexpression of hPXR and ARP-1, while the transactivation in hPXR-overexpressed cells was not observed. These results support the idea that a nuclear receptor other than RXRalpha may play a role in the CYP3A transactivation together with hPXR. The present study also suggests the involvement of a novel cis-element in the hPXR-mediated CYP3A4 transactivation.