Carbonic anhydrases: current state of the art, therapeutic applications and future prospects

J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2004 Jun;19(3):199-229. doi: 10.1080/14756360410001689540.


Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC are wide-spread enzymes, present in mammals in at least 14 different isoforms. Some of these isozymes are cytosolic (CA I, CA II, CA III, CA VII, CA XIII), others are membrane-bound (CA IV, CA IX, CA XII and CA XIV), CA V is mitochondrial and CA VI is secreted in the saliva and milk. Three cytosolic acatalytic forms are also known (CARP VIII, CARP X and CARP XI). The catalytically active isoforms, which play important physiological and patho-physiological functions, are strongly inhibited by aromatic and heterocyclic sulfonamides. The catalytic and inhibition mechanisms of these enzymes are understood in great detail, and this greatly helped the design of potent inhibitors, some of which possess important clinical applications. The use of such CA inhibitors (CAIs) as antiglaucoma drugs are discussed in detail, together with the recent developments that led to isozyme-specific and organ-selective inhibitors. A recent discovery is connected with the involvement of CAs and their sulfonamide inhibitors in cancer: many potent CAIs were shown to inhibit the growth of several tumor cell lines in vitro and in vivo, thus constituting interesting leads for developing novel antitumor therapies. Future prospects for drug design of inhibitors of these ubiquitous enzymes are dealt with. Although activation of CAs has been a controversial issue for some time, recent kinetic, spectroscopic and X-ray crystallographic experiments offered an explanation of this phenomenon, based on the catalytic mechanism. It has been demonstrated recently, that molecules that act as carbonic anhydrase activators (CAAs) bind at the entrance of the enzyme active site participating in facilitated proton transfer processes between the active site and the reaction medium. In addition to CA II-activator adducts, X-ray crystallographic studies have been also reported for ternary complexes of this isozyme with activators and anion (azide) inhibitors. Structure-activity correlations for diverse classes of activators is discussed for the isozymes for which the phenomenon has been studied, i.e., CA I, II, III and IV. The possible physiological relevance of CA activation/inhibition is also addressed, together with recent pharmacological/ biomedical applications of such compounds in different fields of life sciences.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors / chemistry
  • Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors / metabolism
  • Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors / therapeutic use*
  • Carbonic Anhydrases / chemistry
  • Carbonic Anhydrases / metabolism*
  • Drug Design
  • Humans
  • Isoenzymes / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Isoenzymes / chemistry
  • Isoenzymes / metabolism
  • Metals / metabolism


  • Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors
  • Isoenzymes
  • Metals
  • Carbonic Anhydrases