The purpose of this study was to assess parenting knowledge and beliefs among drug abusing pregnant and recently postpartum women engaged in a comprehensive substance abuse treatment program. The effects of a parenting skills training program for this population were evaluated. A Parenting Skills Questionnaire was developed and administered to a sample of 73 pregnant and drug-dependent women during their first week of substance abuse treatment and again approximately 7 weeks later, following parenting skills training. The questionnaire was designed to assess whether group and individual parenting sessions changed the subjects' knowledge and beliefs in four parenting domains: newborn care, feeding practices, child development and drug abuse during pregnancy. Pre-intervention scores for all parenting domains were low. Post- vs. pre-intervention comparisons showed significant increases in all domain scores after individual and group parenting skills training. Preliminary results obtained from this clinic-based sample suggest that these substance abusing mothers lacked important parenting knowledge and that this knowledge improved after comprehensive substance abuse treatment that included parenting training.