Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
. 2004 Nov;20(11-12):783-9.
doi: 10.1007/s00381-004-0931-5. Epub 2004 Jul 30.

The Evolution and Future of Minimalism in Neurological Surgery


The Evolution and Future of Minimalism in Neurological Surgery

Charles Y Liu et al. Childs Nerv Syst. .


Introduction: The evolution of the field of neurological surgery has been marked by a progressive minimalism. This has been evident in the development of an entire arsenal of modern neurosurgical enterprises, including microneurosurgery, neuroendoscopy, stereotactic neurosurgery, endovascular techniques, radiosurgical systems, intraoperative and navigational devices, and in the last decade, cellular and molecular adjuvants.

Aims: In addition to reviewing the major developments and paradigm shifts in the cyclic reinvention of the field as it currently stands, this paper attempts to identify forces and developments that are likely to fuel the irresistible escalation of minimalism into the future. These forces include discoveries in computational science, imaging, molecular science, biomedical engineering, and information processing as they relate to the theme of minimalism.

Discussion: These areas are explained in the light of future possibilities offered by the emerging field of nanotechnology with molecular engineering.

Similar articles

  • 2001: Things to come.
    Apuzzo ML, Liu CY. Apuzzo ML, et al. Neurosurgery. 2001 Oct;49(4):765-78. doi: 10.1097/00006123-200110000-00002. Neurosurgery. 2001. PMID: 11564237 Review.
  • The future of cerebral surgery: a kaleidoscope of opportunities.
    Elder JB, Hoh DJ, Oh BC, Heller AC, Liu CY, Apuzzo ML. Elder JB, et al. Neurosurgery. 2008 Jun;62(6 Suppl 3):1555-79; discussion 1579-82. doi: 10.1227/01.neu.0000333820.33143.0d. Neurosurgery. 2008. PMID: 18695575
  • Instrumentation in neurosurgery: nurturing the trend toward minimalism.
    Yashar P, Hopkins LN. Yashar P, et al. World Neurosurg. 2013 Sep-Oct;80(3-4):240-2. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2011.11.009. Epub 2011 Nov 23. World Neurosurg. 2013. PMID: 22381330 Review. No abstract available.
  • In touch with robotics: neurosurgery for the future.
    Nathoo N, Cavuşoğlu MC, Vogelbaum MA, Barnett GH. Nathoo N, et al. Neurosurgery. 2005 Mar;56(3):421-33; discussion 421-33. doi: 10.1227/ Neurosurgery. 2005. PMID: 15730567 Review.
  • Image-guided surgery.
    Azagury DE, Dua MM, Barrese JC, Henderson JM, Buchs NC, Ris F, Cloyd JM, Martinie JB, Razzaque S, Nicolau S, Soler L, Marescaux J, Visser BC. Azagury DE, et al. Curr Probl Surg. 2015 Dec;52(12):476-520. doi: 10.1067/j.cpsurg.2015.10.001. Epub 2015 Oct 22. Curr Probl Surg. 2015. PMID: 26683419 Review. No abstract available.
See all similar articles

Cited by 2 articles


    1. Science. 1993 Oct 8;262(5131):218-20 - PubMed
    1. Neurosurgery. 2000 May;46(5):1034-51 - PubMed
    1. Neurosurgery. 2003 Feb;52(2):402-12; discussion 412-3 - PubMed
    1. Neurosurgery. 1999 Jun;44(6):1299-306; discussion 1306-7 - PubMed
    1. Nature. 2000 Mar 16;404(6775):247-55 - PubMed

MeSH terms

LinkOut - more resources